Photography courses provide students with an understanding of photographic media, techniques, and processes. These courses focus on development of photographic compositions through manipulation of the fundamental processes of artistic expression. Students may learn to make meaningful visual statements with an emphasis on personal creative expression to communicate ideas, feelings, or values. Photography courses may also include the history of photography, historic movements, image manipulation, critical analysis, and some creative special effects. Students engage in critiques of their photographic images, the works of other students, and those by professional photographers for the purpose of reflecting on and refining work.