The IGCSE Art and Design Painting and Related Media course encourages personal expression, imagination, sensitivity, conceptual thinking, powers of observation, an analytical ability, and practical attitudes. It should lead to greater understanding of the role of the visual arts in the history of civilizations and widen cultural horizons and enrich the individual. In addition, it should combine a breadth and depth of study so that it may accommodate a wide range of abilities and individual resources. It encourages students to develop: an ability to record from direct observation and personal experience; an ability to identify and solve problems in visual and/or other forms; creativity, visual awareness, critical and cultural understanding; an imaginative, creative, and personal response; confidence, enthusiasm, and a sense of achievement in the practice of Art and Design; growing independence in the refinement and development of ideas and personal outcomes; engagement and experimentation with a range of media, materials, and techniques, including new media where appropriate; experience in working in relevant frameworks and exploration of manipulative skills necessary to form, compose, and communicate in two and/or three dimensions; knowledge of a working vocabulary relevant to the subject and an interest in, and a critical awareness of, other practitioners, environments, and cultures; investigative, analytical, experimental, interpretive, practical, technical, and expressive skills that aid effective and independent learning. In this area, students are expected to demonstrate skills in either a representational or descriptive manner, or they may be more imaginative and interpretive. In any case, work will evolve through investigation and development by the candidate. Responses may be based upon a directly observed starting point or subject, or they may be the candidate’s personal response to a theme. Students should learn to use a sketchbook to make visual and/or other appropriate researches and develop their ideas. They should also show knowledge of Art and Design from other cultures or history and relate it to their own studies. Included in this area are painting and drawing, graphic media, printmaking, and other related forms.